- The alkaloid content of Kratom, Mitragyna speciosa leaves is about 0.5%.
- An average leaf weighs about 1.7 grams fresh or 0.43 grams dried.
- Mitragynine is roughly 66% of total alkaloid content found in Kratom leaf.
- Twenty leaves contain approximately 17mg of mitragynine.
- All leaves appear to contain mitragynine, speciogynine, paynanthine, and small quantities of speciociliatine. Oxindole alkaloids usually occur only in small or trace amounts.
Today, the presence of more than 25 alkaloids in the different types of Kratom is recognized. Mitragyne, accounting for about 66% of the total amount of alkaloids, was considered the agent responsible for the effects of Kratom. However, Japanese researchers discovered in 2002 that the alkaloid 7-hydroxymitragynine was the most significant substance in the effect of the plant. This alkaloid, present in very small quantities is much more powerful than morphine.
The Japanese then filed a patent for all possible medical uses of mitragyne, hoping to develop drugs derived from Kratom.
Although the structure of Kratom’s alkaloids is remotely similar to other psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin or LSD, no psychedelic activity has ever been reported following ingestion of Kratom. On the contrary, Kratom causes effects ranging from increased concentration and activity to severe drunkenness and prolonged sleep. But there are many more beneficial effects still largely unknown… and many more chemical compounds involved than those studied to date such as 7-Hydroxymitragynine and Mitragyne.
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List of the 23 alkaloids identified in Kratom, and their known or potential activity
|Ajmalicine||< 1%||Cerebrocirculant, antiaggregant, anti-adrenergic (at alpha-1), sedative, anticonvulsant, smooth muscle relaxer.||Rauwolfia serpentina|
|Ciliaphylline||< 1%||antitussive, analgesic|
|Corynantheidine||< 1%||μ -opioid antagonist||Yohimbe|
|Corynoxéine||< 1%||Calcium channel blocker|
|Epichatechin*||< 1%||Antioxidant, antiaggregant, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antihepatitic,anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic, antimutagenic, antiperoxidant, antiviral, potential cancer preventative, alpha-amylase inhibitor||Dark chocolate|
|7-Hydroxymitragynine**||2%||Analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal. Primary psychoactive in Kratom|
|Isomitraphylline||< 1%||Immunostimulant, anti-leukemic|
|Mitraciliatine||< 1%||Unknown mechanism of action and binding site|
|Mitragynine***||66%||Indole Alkaloid. Analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, adrenergic,antimalarial, possible psychedelic (5-HT2A) antagonist|
|Mitragynine oxindole B||< 1%|
|Mitraphylline||< 1%||Oxindole alkaloid. Vasodilator, antihypertensive, muscle relaxer, diuretic, anti-amnesic, anti-leukemic, possible immunostimulant|
|Mitraversine||< 1%||Unknown as is the mechanism of action, and binding site|
|Paynantheine||8,6% à 9%||Indole alkaloid. Smooth muscle relaxer|
|Rhynchophylline||< 1%||Vasodilator, antihypertensive, calcium channel blocker, antiaggregant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic (fever reducer?), anti-arrhythmic, antithelmintic|
|Speciociliatine||< 1%||Weak opioid agonist||unique to Kratom|
|Speciofoline||< 1%||Unknown as is the mechanism of action, and binding site|
|Speciogynine||6,6% à 7%||Smooth muscle relaxer|
|Speciophylline||< 1%||Indole alkaloid. Anti-leukemic|
|Stipulatine||< 1%||Unknown as is the mechanism of action, and binding site|
|Tetrahydroalstonine||< 1%||Hypoglycemic, anti-adrenergic (at alpha-2)|
Epichatechin* : Epicatechin is a balanced substance with versatile beneficial effects. It reduces the effects of free radicals on the body, which reduces the risk of cancer and prevents the oxidation of fat cells and their blockage of the arteries. In addition, it helps with high blood sugar levels and is beneficial for diabetics because it mimics endogenous insulin. In addition, it prevents the growth of bacteria such as E-Coli and inhibits alpha-amylase.
7-Hydroxymitragynine** : 7-Hydroxymitragynine is the main ingredient in Kratom tinctures and has an opioid agonist activity. Recent research on active substances in Kratom has shown that its potency is 30 times greater than that of Mytragynine, making 7-Hydroxymitragynine the best candidate for the role of main active ingredient in Kratom and relegates Mitragynine, once considered as the main substance, in second place.
7-Hydroxymitragynine interacts with the three major opioid sites Kappa, Delta and Mu, but has more affinity for Mu receptors, these receptors are responsible for the pleasurable effects of opiates, analgesia and physical dependence.
Mitragyne*** : Mitragynine is an indolated alkaloid that was first isolated in 1907 by Dr. Hooper. It took almost 100 years to find a recreational use. Once considered as the main active substance of Kratom, it is actually only the most common active alkaloid (0.1 to 0.3% depending on the plant). A small dose of Mitragynine acts as a stimulant because it attaches to Delta receptors. With higher doses, it also binds to Mu receptors and relieves pain. Although the structure of Mitragynine is similar to that of LSD or Psilocybin, it does not cause psychedelic effects. Since Mitragynine was considered to be the main active substance in Kratom, it has been studied more than 7-Hydroxymitragynine.